Archaeologists such as Glueck metaphorically carried the trowel in 1 hand and the Bible in the other, searching the archaeological landscape of the southern Levant for confirmation of the biblical narrative from the Patriarchs to the United Monarchy under David and Solomon to other personages, places, and events mentioned in the sacred text.
biomass: the organic material that makes up the body of a plant, animal, or other organism.
anaerobic: used to describe 1) an organism that can live without free oxygen, or 2) an environment that contains no free oxygen.
anoxic: completely lacking free oxygen (O) archaea: micro-organisms that belong to a major division of life, as different from bacteria as humans are.
The new radiocarbon dates push back by 2 centuries the accepted IA chronology of Edom.
Data from Khirbat en-Nahas, and the nearby site of Rujm Hamra Ifdan, demonstrate the centrality of industrial-scale metal production during those centuries traditionally linked closely to political events in Edom's 10th century BCE neighbor ancient Israel.