Methods We conducted a case-control study in 481 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and 962 sex-age matched non-cancer controls.Data on lifestyle factors, including diet, were obtained by self-administered questionnaire.Increased numbers of CD25hi Treg cells are found in cancer patients, including CRC.However, in contrast to many cancers, the phenotype of these cells has not been studied in CRC patients.Due to age, stress, drugs, antibiotics and/or infection the gut microbiome loses both volume and diversity.
Furthermore, vaccination, rather than inducing effector T cells, may be detrimental by activating Tregs.
Antigens (Ags) expressed by cancer cells can be specifically recognised by T cells contributing to anti-tumour immunity.
For this reason, tumour Ag-specific T helper type 1 (Th1) cells can be detected in cancers and their infiltration is predictive of a prolonged disease-free survival.
If that person takes antibiotics, the strains of bacteria are not all killed equally. Text book thinking is that the human body is an organism of 7 trillion cells and 25,000 genes.
The helpful or commensal bacteria tend to be more fragile; the pathogens more hardy. The very latest thinking is that in fact we are, in fact, ´Super-organisms´ of 100 trillion cells and 100,000 genes.